November-December 2007 
Year 14    No.126
Apostasy/Blasphemy


Muslims uphold the freedom of faith

100 Muslim academics, scholars, imams, professionals, uphold the freedom of faith and the freedom to change ones faith

BY Mohammad Omar Farooq

Apostasy (riddah) is a major issue that affects the understanding of, and perception about, Islam. Historically, Muslim scholars have not factored in the distinction between apostasy (changing ones faith, which is strictly a sin against god) and treason (strictly a civil offence against an established public order) when it is stated that Islam mandates capital punishment for riddah. That un-nuanced perspective about apostasy has fuelled negative propaganda against Islam and a negative image of Muslims. In recent years in some notable and well known cases, a fatwa (legal, non-binding opinion) was issued against alleged apostates and, at times, even a bounty was announced on their head.

Many Muslim scholars and academics have argued against the stated historical position as inconsistent with the Koran and on the grounds that killing someone for making a considered choice negates the very Islamic value and principle of freedom of choice, affecting Islams position on universal human rights.

Freedom of choice in faith is central to Islam. This has been exemplified in the Koranic narrative regarding the choice made by Satan in contrast with Adam and Eve and the broad agreement of Muslim scholars that only faith freely adopted is meritorious before god. Throughout history prophets and the communities of their believers have struggled to secure freedom of faith for themselves. Indeed it is a principle quintessential to both Islam and humanity.

Choosing a path in line with our beliefs about salvation has significant consequences in terms of our afterlife. In this world that freedom is bestowed upon us by god, which, by implication, must include the possibility of changing ones faith. Freedom of religion is meaningless without the freedom to change ones religion. Denial of such reciprocal rights is also inconsistent with the principle of justice (adl/qist), as clearly enunciated in the Koran (4/an-Nisa/135).

The Koran does not specify any worldly punishment or retribution solely for apostasy. Similarly, there is no clear prophetic judgement on apostasy nor examples that such punishment was meted out (during the time of the prophet or in the period of the righteous caliphate) to someone solely for abandoning Islam as a creed, in contrast with apostasy-cum-treason, involving taking up arms against the Muslim community or the state.

Islam upholds the fundamental principle pertaining to freedom of faith ("Let there be no compulsion in Deen", 2/ al-Baqarah/256; also see 39/al-Zumar/41). Thus:

Statement

We the undersigned Muslims from diverse backgrounds affirm:

The freedom of faith and the freedom of changing ones faith. In light of the Koranic guidance and the prophetic legacy, the principle of freedom of faith does not lend itself to impose in this world any punishment or retribution solely for apostasy; thus there ought not to be any punishment in the name of Islam or fatwa calling for the same.

In addition, we call upon:

our esteemed scholars (ulema) and jurists (fuqaha), to address this inconsistency between the Islamic principle of freedom of faith and the position mandating punishment for apostasy, and to bring our legacy of Islamic jurisprudence and general Islamic discourse up to date for the times with reference to indisputable and categorical Islamic principles.

our fellow Muslims, to be informed of Islams position on apostasy and to uphold the principle of choice so that we may exercise tolerance towards those who have left the "straight path" and deal with their subsequent views and actions (even when they are against Islam) within the context of human rights and civil liberties allowed by law.

imams and religious leaders, to educate and sensitise Muslim masses about notions of fairness and justice inherent in Islam, and respond to apostasy in a dignified, constructive and patient manner.

governments of Muslim majority countries, to address this matter constitutionally as well as legally and actively engage in a process that eventually discards any law entailing punishment for apostasy.

Islamic organisations, to uphold universal human rights (not inconsistent with Islam) and to defend the rights of ex-Muslims in regard to apostasy.

Friday, March 30, 2007

(The signatories include several Muslims from across the globe, in the USA, Canada, UK, Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, UAE, Syria, Nigeria, Tanzania and South Africa.)

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